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Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun M and Heath Jr C. Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries 1950-2000. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994.


Peto R, Lopez AD, Boreham J, Thun MJ. Mortality from smoking in developed countries 1950-2000, 2nd ed. International Union Against Cancer (UICC),

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World Population Prospects: The 1992 Revision: ST/ESA/SER.A/135, United Nations, New York, 1993; p.139.


World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision; United Nations. accessed 11 September 2015.




The chief acknowledgement is to the millions of doctors, registrars of death, medical statisticians and other supporting staff who, in dozens of countries throughout the latter half of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century, have documented the causes of hundreds of millions of deaths, and rendered publicly available their findings.


Cancer Research UK and the Medical Research Council provided long-term support, and the Clinical Trial Service Unit provided extensive computing facilities.

The basic mortality data was obtained from the WHOSIS website (, accessed 28 May 2015); assistance with this from Doris Mafat is gratefully acknowledged. Additional mortality data for the Former Soviet Union was provided by Vladimir Shkolnikov. The American Cancer Society provided data from their CPS-II and CPS-I prospective studies of smoking and death among one million Americans in the 1980s and the 1960s. The United Nations Population Division made available their World Population Prospects: 2012 Revision.


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